writings of

Cesare Beccaria


A Milan-born writer who, at the ripe old age of 26, became the Founding Father of modern criminology, and revolutionized the European approach to crime and punishment.

Of Crimes and Punishments
Translated by E.D. Ingraham

Of the Origin of Punishments
Of the right to punish
Consequences of the foregoing Principles
Of the Interpretation of Laws
Of the Obscurity of Laws
Of the Proportion between Crimes and Punishments
Of estimating the Degree of Crimes
Of the Division of Crimes

Of Honour
Of Duelling
Of crimes which disturb the Public Tranquillity
Of the Intent of Punishments
Of the Credibility of Witnesses
Of Evidence and the Proofs of a Crime, and of the Form of Judgment
Of secret Accusations

Of Torture
Of pecuniary Punishments
Of Oaths
Of the Advantage of immediate Punishment
Of Acts of violence
Of the Punishment of the Nobles
Of Robbery

Of Infamy considered as a Punishment
Of Idleness
Of Banishment and Confiscation
Of the Spirit of Family in States
Of the Mildness of Punishments

Of the Punishment of Death
Of imprisonment
Of Prosecution and Prescription
Of Crimes of difficult Proof

Of Suicide
Of Smuggling
Of bankrupty
Of Sanctuaries
Of Rewards for apprehending or killing Criminals
Of Attempts, Accomplices, and Pardon
Of suggestive Interrogations
Of a particular Kind of Crimes
Of false Ideas of Utility

Of the Means of preventing Crimes
Of the Sciences
Of Magistrates
Of rewards
Of Education
Of Pardons

 Classical Liberals